Being focused on understanding complex, local realities livelihoods approaches are an ideal entry point for participatory approaches to inquiry, with negotiated learning between local people and outsiders. The environment and development movement of the 1980s and 1990s threw up in particular concerns about linking a focus on poverty reduction and development with longer-term environmental shocks and stresses. Thus HIV/AIDS discussions were recast from a health to a livelihoods focus (Loevinshon and Gillespie 2003), diversification of livelihoods, migration and non-farm rural income was put at the centre of the rural development agenda (Tacoli 1998, De Haan 1999, Ellis 2000) and complex emergencies, conflict and disaster responses were now seen through a livelihoods lens (Cannon et al. As global transformations continue apace, attention to scale issues must be central to the reinvigoration of livelihoods perspectives. debates about ‘mixed farming’, for example, Scoones and Wolmer 2002), the assumption is that the end point, with agriculture as a business, driven by entrepreneurship and vibrant markets, linked to a burgeoning urban economy, is the ideal to strive for.14 Such framings of course present a normative version of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ livelihoods and so ‘good’ and ‘bad’ rural futures, defining ‘progress’ in a particular way. This involved collaborations of ecologists, anthropologists, agriculturalists and economists looking at changing rural systems and their development challenges (Fardon 1990). To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. We use cookies to improve your website experience. But who is to say that, for example, subsistence farmers, poachers, border jumpers or sex workers are pursuing inappropriate livelihoods in need of rescue, discipline or transformation? The commitment to local-level fieldwork, with understandings embedded in the complex realities of diverse livelihoods, but linking to more macro-structural issues, are all important characteristics. Secondly, it is ‘holistic’ in that it is ‘non-sectoral’ and it recognises multiple influences, multiple actors, multiple strategies and multiple outcomes. I identify four: the need to articulate livelihoods perspectives with concerns of knowledge, politics, scale and dynamics. The 1992 book, Rural Livelihoods: Crises and Responses (Bernstein et al. SLRD joins in the fight against Corona Virus. Read Book Sustainable Livelihoods And Rural Development Agrarian Change And Peasant Studies Rural women are the backbone of sustainable livelihoods and provide food security for their families and communities,” said UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in his message marking the occasion. Livelihoods in crisis? When emanating from influential institutions and cast in a rational-technical framing, as with the World Bank's World Development Report, such statements carry with them major consequences. Clearly an argument could be made that ‘power was everywhere’– from contexts, to constructions and access to capitals, as mediating institutions and social relations, guiding underlying choices of strategies and influencing options and outcomes. As against the bureaucratic 'top-down' approach, MSSRF practices 'bottom-up' and participatory approach. See: http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/fjps20/current. Monday, January 18, 2021. In contrast, TFPL is a social-immanent learning tool that provides a safe, fun venue where rural households can make their realities explicit, exchange ideas, explore possibilities for action, and discuss what needs to be changed. But all this changed in the latter part of the 1990s and into the 2000s, when the formulaic solutions of the Washington Consensus began to be challenged – both on the streets, such as in the ‘battle of Seattle’ at the World Trade Organisation Ministerial Conference of 1999, in the debates generated by global social movements around the World Social Fora (from 2001 in Porto Alegre), in academic debate, including in economics (from Stiglitz onwards), and in countries whose economies had not rebounded with the magic medicine of neo-liberal reform and whose state capacities had been decimated along the way. Sixthly, it is committed explicitly to several different dimensions of sustainability: environmental, economic, social and institutional.11. This is a problem which needs to be addressed. This may cut across the boundaries of more conventional approaches to looking at rural development which focus on defined activities: agriculture, wage employment, farm labour, small-scale enterprise and so on. However, after 50 years of consistent aid to Ghana, donor assistance has not fared as expected to improve farmers’ livelihoods and agricultural productivity. Arce (2003), for example, offers the case of coca farming in Bolivia, asking whose livelihoods count – and to what and whose ends? However, these have sometimes got lost in the micro-economic reformulations of livelihoods analysis. Although the framework allowed us to identify land-use alternatives that could improve SI scores (i.e., silvopastoral systems), corrections to the proposed framework and methodological approach will need to include additional environmental benefits currently unaccounted for. Studies focusing on livelihood and environmental change were also an important strand of work. 1997), monitoring and evaluation (Adato and Meinzen Dick 2002), sector strategies (Gilling et al. cesses of change in and in relation to the rural world. Aid money was spent in different ways, new people with different values and skills were hired, and, for once, even if grossly inadequately, local contexts were better understood and poor, marginalised people were involved in plans and decisions (Neely et al. How do different framings get negotiated? But it was not until 1992, when Chambers and Conway produced a working paper for the Institute of Development Studies that a now much used definition of sustainable livelihoods emerged. The committee consisted of DfID staff, from a range of departments, as well as outsiders from the research and NGO community. Finally, a fourth area that livelihood studies failed to grapple with were debates about long-term shifts in rural economies and wider questions about agrarian change. institutions to focus on a heterogeneous demand structure for the financial services provided to the rural poor. Unit 2 Rural livelihoods Rural development is fundamentally about improving the welfare of rural people, and a major element of this is the reduction of rural poverty. Community Development. This may, in particular, emerge from ‘niches’, where experiments with alternatives occur at a small scale at the margins, only to become mainstream at a later date when conditions change and opportunities arise (Smith 2006). Rural Development and Strengthening Rural Clusters Innovative Activity Based Education Programs . The weak and sometimes confusing and contradictory theorisation of politics and power, meant that an intellectual articulation with both mainstream political science governance debates and more radical agrarian change discussions was missing. Abstract and Figures Livelihoods perspectives have been central to rural development thinking and practice in the past decade. 7A core feature of the DfID version of the framework (see Carney et al. Finally, future researches should include possible sources of inequality in access to livelihood resources that do not allow achieving sustainability as defined in Scoones, I. For example, in a study from rural Zimbabwe, Frost et al. While emerging from ecology and a concern for complex, non-linear dynamics of ecosystems, resilience thinking has increasingly been applied to interactions between ecological and social systems across scales (Berkes et al. In long-run livelihood change, specific dynamic drivers, operating over decades, are highlighted as important. The study underlines the need to access credit conditioned to climate change resilience, access to improved varieties of crops, availing extension services and targeted resources allocations. This line of work overlapped substantially with studies that emerged from Marxist political geography, but had, in some respects, another intellectual trajectory which came to be labelled as political ecology (Blaikie and Brookfield 1987, Robbins 2003, Forsyth 2003). Social relations inevitably govern the distribution of property (including land), patterns of work and divisions of labour, the distribution of income and the dynamics of consumption and accumulation. 6 http://www.dfid.gov.uk/Pubs/files/whitepaper1997.pdf. www.chronicpoverty.org/toolbox/Livelihoods.php. In livelihoods discourse ‘sustainability’ tended to refer to coping with immediate shocks and stresses, where local capacities and knowledge, if effectively supported, might be enough. It is intended for those who are interested in understanding the grassroots reality of the Indian rural financial sector. These were socio-cultural and political processes which explained how and why diverse asset inputs linked to strategies and outcomes. In many respects these were livelihood studies, although with a focus on the micro-economics of farm production and patterns of household accumulation. 3099067 Another view, however, is that what livelihoods perspectives offer, these other perspectives often miss out on, with potentially damaging consequences. This was a strong theme in Chambers' writing, and especially in his massively influential book, Rural Development: Putting the Last First (Chambers 1983). While such analysis may be good at opening up inputs to debate, offering descriptive insight into local complexity, it is less good at defining outputs, which often get narrowed down. Yet livelihoods approaches have been accused of being good methods in search of a theory (O'Laughlin 2004). The first stop on this journey was the DfID Natural Resource Advisors conference of 1998. Second, the livelihoods literature is replete with classifications and typologies, often contrasting ideal types with alternatives with pejorative ascriptions. Monday, January 18, 2021. http://www.dfid.gov.uk/Pubs/files/whitepaper1997.pdf. 1997). Very often in discussion of livelihoods – and particularly sustainable livelihoods – a set of ideas about bottom-up, locally-led, participatory development dovetails with livelihoods analysis. A second area, with similar concerns but with different origins, is work on transitions in socio-technical systems (Geels and Schot 2007, Smith and Stirling 2008). The study shows that the vast majority of these farmers faced serious obstacles to overcome. As a result, these populations have been targeted for poverty alleviation by fisheries development programmes since the early 60's. Livelihoods analysis, by the World Bank or any other actor, is not a neutral exercise; knowledge production is always conditioned by values, politics and institutional histories and commitments (Keeley and Scoones 2003). Find Us. Issues Surrounding Youth, Youth Livelihoods & Sustainable Rural Development International and Rural Development Department The University of Reading PO Box 237, Reading RG6 6AR, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)118 378 8225 Fax: +44 (0)118 926 1244 This document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) for the benefit of developing countries. But what is left out by this particular normative framing? Principal component and cluster analyses were used to group the farms according to their index scores and to further compare their characteristics. But advocates of a sustainable livelihoods approach argued strongly that this time it was different. But where do such perspectives come from, what are their conceptual roots, and what influences have shaped the way they have emerged? As with ‘sustainability science’ (Clarke and Dickson 2003), the central concern is with sustaining ‘life support systems’, and the capacity of natural systems to provide for livelihoods into the future, given likely stresses and shocks. Only in Zimbabwe has substantial redistribution of land taken place since independence, but here, as elsewhere in the region, the rights of small-scale landholders remain vulnerable and the conditions for agricultural livelihoods highly unfavourable. The operationalisation approach for assessment balances policy-usability, system complexity and comprehensiveness, while providing actionable insights. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Ph : +91-755-4940330 But such single time-frame analyses may miss out on longer-term dynamics and the potentials for more radical transformations. How is sustainability assessed? (2005), for example, distinguish between ‘hanging in’, ‘stepping up’ and ‘stepping out’. Poverty and livelihoods: whose reality counts? We show that BNs can be useful tools for the design and evaluation of rural development policies. Livelihoods perspectives have been central to rural development thinking and practice in the past decade. To illustrate this, a return to the policy story is required. Address. 2002, SLSA 2003b) and linking wider questions of agrarian change (Lahiff 2003). The mistakes of old-style, area-based development were not going to be made again, and social and cultural issues would not just enter as part of a post-hoc‘told you so’ evaluation process, but would be right at the core of the development endeavour. The second failing relates to the lack of attention to power and politics and the failure to link livelihoods and governance debates in development. 12 http://www.dfid.gov.uk/Pubs/files/whitepaper2000.pdf. It has important applications in understanding urban livelihoods and vulnerability and the linkages between rural and urban areas. Ecotechnologies are the resultant of lending frontier technologies with traditional knowledge and ecological prudence of the indigenous communities. Additionally, a single time frame sample can ignore important changes that drive drastic transformation, ... Then, coming studies may be oriented to overcome this limitation by developing an analysis that captures the changes in the livelihood strategies, socioeconomic conditions and households' preferences in time [13]. With more complexity, more diversity and more uncertainty about possible rural futures such an embedded approach is, I contend, essential. The politics of knowledge and framing often gets kept under wraps. Attention to how livelihoods are structured by relations of class, caste, gender, ethnicity, religion and cultural identity are central. 2007). : Technology and Change in Rice-growing Areas of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. With the establishment of the new DfID, and a commitment to a sustainable livelihoods approach to tackling poverty enshrined in a White Paper, the old Natural Resources Department transformed itself into a Livelihoods Department, later with its own Sustainable Livelihoods Support Office. Looking to the future the paper identifies a number of core challenges, centred on the need to inject a more thorough-going political analysis into the centre of livelihoods perspectives. 2002, Berkes 2007, and broader dimensions of livelihoods, Over the past few decades, more than 60 per cent of emerging infectious diseases affecting people have had their origin in wildlife or livestock. Where, then, do ‘livelihood perspectives’– and particularly ‘sustainable rural livelihood approaches’– fit into this complex and variegated history? Here, we describe the design and implementation of a serious board game called The Flow of Peasant Lives (TFPL). This paper offers an historical review of key moments in debates about rural livelihoods, … Thus, both the environmental entitlements approach (Leach et al. Although developed to some degree in some earlier precursors of the livelihoods frameworks (cf. Poverty and livelihoods: whose reality counts? Other bigger, macro-economic, global-scale questions were, it was argued, more important, and a project-focused, micro-scale approach was not appropriate to the new aid modalities of direct budget support and the Paris agenda (Clarke and Carney 2008). Rural Development: Putting the Last First. These examples thus identify multiple future options – or pathways – some positive, some negative; some supported by external intervention and policy, some not. These reflections have addressed the social and political structures and processes that influence livelihood choices. In such a view ‘the global’ and ‘the local’ are not separated – either physically or analytically – but intimately intertwined through connections, linkages, relations and dynamics between diverse locales. 3Robert Chambers (personal communication, October 2008), although, as he points out, there are various other earlier antecedents, including a paper for a 1975 Commonwealth Ministerial Meeting entitled ‘Policies for Future Rural Livelihoods’. They are often already poor and landless individuals who are able to subsist by fishing. The book draws on new theoretical perspectives and wide-ranging case studies from Britain, the USA, India, South Africa, New Zealand and Latin America. They must ask how particular forms of globalisation and associated processes of production and exchange – historically from colonialism to contemporary neo-liberal economics – create both processes of marginalisation and opportunity. This pushed alternative sources of social science expertise, and particularly cross-disciplinary livelihoods perspectives, to the side. Households that own more high-value cash crops are more buffered against rice yield shocks despite having higher agricultural income variability. Livelihoods approaches encompass a broad church, and there has been some important work that has elaborated what is meant, in different variants of different frameworks, by ‘transforming structures and process’, ‘policies, institutions and processes’, ‘mediating institutions and organisations’, ‘sustainable livelihoods governance’ or ‘drivers of change’ (cf. due to a lack of understanding for the complex livelihood strategies and networks of socio-economic and institutional relationships which characterise the different strata of these societies. LivingRoots Handmade participates in Who’s Next Paris SLRD ramping up production at largest apparel manufacturing unit in North East India. A simple, integrating approach was needed that would tie people into this conversation, and become a way of explaining – and making happen – the idea. This dynamic, longitudinal analysis emphasises such terms as coping, adaptation, improvement, diversification and transformation. Providing a ‘boundary terminology’, they have been able to break down divides, build bridges and transform the focus of debates and implementation practice in some fundamental ways. (2007) present a highly pessimistic vision of livelihood sustainability. This study explores household’s perceptions of climate change and its implications on livelihood formation process using empirical data from Uganda. Farm variables within each capital were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. Despite the claims of some genealogies of livelihoods thinking, such perspectives did not suddenly emerge on the scene in 1992 with the influential Chambers and Conway paper. Accordingly, political space is very limited – focusing mainly on ‘empowering’ the poor, without being clear about how this process takes place or who might be ‘disempowered’ for it to occur. Livelihoods perspectives and rural development . Despite the use of the word ‘sustainable’, the third failing has been the lack of rigorous attempts to deal with long-term secular change in environmental conditions. Yet, in arguing that livelihoods perspectives are important for integrating insights and interventions beyond disciplinary or sectoral boundaries, the paper also touches on some of the limitations, dangers and challenges. Fisheries development programmes since the early 1960s they are not necessarily poor because their livelihood is.... Make about using their assets of course mediated by power relations between classes and other social groups are,... Respond to climatic change impacts, exclusively on the micro-economics of farm production and patterns of household.... 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Instead, more positively, around the four themes outlined above a new livelihoods agenda opens up through local in! Farm production and patterns of household accumulation farmers ( Maina, Gowland-Mwangi, & Boselie, 2012.! Concludes by outlining additional challenges for research to continue development of food and rural developmentIan livelihoods. Discourse and associated coalition remains however largely Anglophone pursuit of livelihoods analysis to put centre! Integrated analysis of complex, and so the implications of multiple transformations and livelihood. Of agrarian structures requires, as well as the most sustainable the.... Neglected by policy-makers in all three countries our use of cookies and how you can your! Development ( ARD ) are key to addressing the root causes of migration same,... Dismissed as too complex, highly dynamic rural contexts papers, the M.S particular discursive space the. To our use of the stories of these farmers faced serious obstacles to overcome change affects the livelihood process a... And on-the-ground experiences of globalisation, and skills obtained from the 1980s had extinguished debate.

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