Owen Lovejoy (1811-1864), an influential abolitionist, lived in this house, a National Historic Landmark, which was used as a depot on the Underground Railroad. Richard Lovejoy, writer and descendant of Elijah P. Lovejoy. Reverend Lovejoy ( Simpsons) (Presbyterian)Reverend Elijah Lovejoy. Corrections? For nearly five weeks, he walked up and down streets, knocking on peoples' doors and wheedling passersby, in hopes of getting them to subscribe to the newspaper. In St. Louis, Lovejoy quickly became ill, but once recovered, he operated a school with a friend, modeled on high schools in the East. Rev. Frederick Douglass was a leader of the abolitionist movement who had escaped from slavery and was a great orator and wrote very important antislavery writing. Lovejoy became a national symbol for the abolitionist movement and is remembered today not only in the history books but with a large monument in Alton that overlooks the city. ...” in History if there is no answer or all answers are wrong, use a search bar and try to find the answer among similar questions. A major port in a slave state surrounded by free ones, St. Louis was a center of both abolitionist and pro-slavery factions. In 1835, Lovejoy married Celia Ann French, of St. Charles, Missouri, and they had two children. He stopped in New York City in mid-June, to try to find work. After the Reverend Elijah Lovejoy, editor of an Abolitionist newspaper in St. Louis, moved it in 1836 to Alton, Illinois, the citizens of Alton destroyed in on three occasions. Gill was himself a former Alton minister who, like Lovejoy, also suffered persecution for his commitment to human rights. Lovejoy is the minister at The First Church of Springfield—the Protestant church in … Daniel Lovejoy named his son "Elijah Parish" in honor of his close friend and mentor, Elijah Parish, a minister who was also involved in politics. He studied at the Academy at Monmouth and the China Academy before enrolling in Maine Waterville College in 1823. [14] He sold his interest in the Times, returned East to study at the Princeton Theological Seminary, and upon completion, went to Philadelphia, where he became an ordained minister of the Presbyterian Church in April 1833. As a result, Elijah was taught to read the Bible and other religious texts at an early age.[4]. There are no choices 4,738 results, page 9 Margaret ____1__ young people may be able to list the many accomplishments of the Reverend Dr. Marting Luther, King jr. What happened by the 1850s? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. abolitionist. Some of his supporters were later buried near him. [13], Lovejoy and The Observer continued to be embroiled in controversy. Elijah Parish Lovejoy was born on November 9, 1802, in Albion, Maine to Elizabeth and Reverend Daniel Lovejoy. He is also honored in the name of the current Presbytery of Giddings-Lovejoy, formed from the merger of Elijah Parish Lovejoy Presbytery and the Presbytery of Southeast Missouri on January 3, 1985. From 1814 to 1860, more than three hundred freedom suits were filed by slaves to gain freedom, often based on their having lived in free territory with their masters. According to John Quincy Adams, the murder "[gave] a shock as of an earthquake throughout this country". [3] Due to his own lack of an education, he encouraged his sons—Elijah, Daniel, Joseph Cammett, Owen, and John—to become educated men. The mob destroyed the new printing press by carrying it to a window and throwing it out onto the riverbank. These conflicts of interest resulted in a "not guilty" verdict. [13], Lovejoy was considered a martyr by the abolition movement. He also started an abolitionist paper called the Alton Observer. Lovejoy occasionally hired slaves to work with him at the paper, one of whom, William Wells Brown, later recounted his experience in a memoir. He served as pastor at Upper Alton Presbyterian Church (now College Avenue Presbyterian Church). Many in Alton began questioning allowing Lovejoy to continue printing in their town. Reverend Lovejoy or Elijah Parish Lovejoy was a reverend who published anti-slavery articles in various newspapers. [7] During the winter and spring, he taught at China Academy. That same year, Lovejoy began editorializing on slavery, the most controversial social issue of that time. "[1]:101, Lovejoy was born at his grandfather's frontier farmhouse near Albion, Maine, as the first of the nine children of Elizabeth (Pattee) Lovejoy and Daniel Lovejoy. Reverend William speaks from his heart giving powerful messages, motivating advice, and quoting Bible verses. Lovejoy did not think he could do well in Illinois's scantly settled land, so he headed for St. Louis, where he settled the same year.[11]. When Lovejoy and his men returned fire, they hit several people in the crowd, killing a man named Bishop.[18]. The Lovejoy School in Washington, DC was named in his honor in 1870. His views were influenced by Nelson, an abolitionist. Lovejoy's views on slavery began to incite complaints and threats. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In 1835, the Missouri Republican began suggesting gradual emancipation in Missouri, and Lovejoy supported this endeavor through the Observer. How did men like William Lloyd Garrison, Reverend Lovejoy, and Fredrick Douglass participate in the abolitionist movement? Reverend Timothy Lovejoy, Jr. is a recurring character in the animated television series The Simpsons. Due to his own lack of an education, he encouraged his sons—Daniel, J… [13], Lovejoy held the Illinois Antislavery Congress at the Presbyterian church in Upper Alton on October 26, 1837. With already negative attention on him, Lawless' opinion did nothing to help Lovejoy and in May, Lovejoy decided to move the Observer to Alton, Illinois.[13]. He graduated at the top of his class in September of 1826, and began teaching at the China Academy. Elijah Lovejoy was buried in Alton Cemetery in an unmarked grave. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. There was such fear at the time of Lovejoy's death that no service was held, and the town newspaper he had led did not even report his death, though many other newspapers around the country decried this murder. All three of them were abolitionist and spread anit-slavery ideas through print. Get an answer to your question “1.How did Elijah Lovejoy and William Lloyd Garrison contribute to the abolitionist movement? William Lloyd Garrison, Reverend Lovejoy, and Fredrick Douglas all had one thing in common. Many escaped slaves crossed the Mississippi River from Missouri, a slave state. Lovejoy was born at his grandfather's frontier farmhouse near Albion, Maine, as the first of the nine children of Elizabeth (Pattee) and Reverend Daniel Lovejoy. Memorialized as the first name listed in the "Journalists Memorial" located at the Newseum, 555 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC. There is a Lovejoy Health Center named for him in Albion, ME, the place of his birth. He also started an abolitionist paper called the Alton Observer. What happened to Reverend Lovejoy's printing press? Frederick Douglass was a slave that then became a free man who could write. Elijah Parish Lovejoy (November 9, 1802 – November 7, 1837) was an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, newspaper editor, and abolitionist. Among these new acquaintances were Edward Bates, Hamilton R. Gamble, and Archibald Gamble. The Rights of All (formerly Freedom’s Journal), founded 1829, by Reverend Samuel E. Cornish . After becoming proficient enough in Latin and mathematics, he enrolled at Waterville College (now Colby College) in Waterville, Maine, as a sophomore in 1823. [15], In 1837 he started the Alton Observer, also an abolitionist paper. Working at the Times introduced him to like-minded community leaders, many of whom were members of the American Colonization Society, that supported sending freed American blacks to Africa. At the same time, it was an area where both free Blacks and slaves worked in the city, especially on the waterfront and steamboats. Senator from Maine. But Lovejoy was seen as a martyr for the antislavery cause as well, and his murder inspired many to join the abolitionist movement. As tensions over slavery escalated in St. Louis, Lovejoy would not back down from his convictions and he had a sense that he would become a martyr for the cause. They felt Southern states, or even St. Louis, might not want to do business with their town if they continued to harbor an abolitionist. Returning to St. Louis, he set up a church and resumed work as editor of the Observer. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In September 1826, Lovejoy graduated cum laude from Waterville College,[6] of which he was valedictorian. Elijah P. Lovejoy, Alton, 1837, Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University, 1946, "Angry mobs, deadly duels, presses set on fire: A history of attacks on the press", http://www.newseum.org/exhibits/online/journalists-memorial/, Correspondence & manuscripts, 1804-1891, at Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library, Texas Tech University, Frontenac, Missouri meetinghouse where Lovejoy once preached, Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, List of lynching victims in the United States, William "Froggie" James and Henry Salzner, Thomas Moss, Henry Stewart, Calvin McDowell (TN), Thomas Harold Thurmond and John M. Holmes, Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore, Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching, Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Crime Act, The National Memorial for Peace and Justice, National Museum of African American History and Culture, "The United States of Lyncherdom" (Twain), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elijah_Parish_Lovejoy&oldid=1001024503, Presbyterian Church (USA) teaching elders, American anti-abolitionist riots and civil disorder, Articles needing additional references from November 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2020, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Chaplin sent the money that his former student so needed. Originally from Maine, Lovejoy moved to Alton, Illinois in southern Illinois where he published the Alton Observer, an anti-slavery newspaper, and helped found the Illinois Anti-Slavery Society. He was shot and killed by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Illinois, during their attack on the warehouse of Benjamin Godfrey and W. S. Gillman, where Lovejoy's press and abolitionist materials were stored. In 1832, influenced by the Christian revivalist movement led by abolitionist David Nelson, he joined the First Presbyterian Church and decided to become a preacher. The 1837 mob killing of Elijah Lovejoy was finally commemorated by a monument in Alton's City Cemetery, installed sixty years later in 1897. In it, he asserted his willingness to respect the views of his opponents, but claimed the right to challenge them, as guaranteed in the Constitution. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Frederick Douglass was a leader of the abolitionist movement who had escaped from slavery and was a great orator and wrote very important antislavery writing. [10] Struggling with his finances, he wrote to Jeremiah Chaplin, the president of Waterville College, explaining his situation. Updates? enslavement grew larger and more profitable than ever before in the nation’s history. When angry mobs threatened to shut down his newspaper, he pressed on. St. Louis Observer, St. Louis, Missouri, Elijah P. Lovejoy, publisher, founder, 1833, became the Alton Observer, Alton, Illinois . By October 1835, there were rumors of mob action against the Observer. There is a plaque honoring Elijah Parish Lovejoy on the external wall at the Mackay Campus Center at his alma mater, Princeton Theological Seminary. He was shot and killed by a pro-slavery mob in Alto The leaders of the mob set up a ladder against the warehouse. Lovejoy was a reverend and newspaper editor who spoke out against slavery. He began an abolitionist newspaper in Illinois. “Is the individual swallowed up in the citizen?” he asked. On November 2, 1837, five days before his death, he gave an emotive speech in Alton on the abolition question. The news of his death stirred the people of the North profoundly and led to a great strengthening of abolitionist sentiment. In his name, his brother Owen became the leader of the Illinois abolitionists. The judge made remarks insinuating that abolitionists, including Lovejoy and the Observer, had incited McIntosh into stabbing the policemen. Elijah Lovejoy was an abolitionist, antislavery activist and advocate, Presbyterian reverend, newspaper editor, and publisher who earned a reputation as an uncompromising opponent of slavery. Lovejoy wrote a response to the letter, making it clear he did not agree with the publishers' policy. Before he could move the press, an angry mob broke into the Observer office and vandalized it. He was asked to resign as editor of the Observer, to which he agreed. (person wanting to abolish slavery) and believed slavery was a sin against God. Elijah P. Lovejoy (1838). [13], In spring 1834, Lovejoy penned a number of articles and editorials criticizing the Catholic Church. [5] His cousin Nathan A. Farwell later served as a U.S. Friends in St. Louis offered to finance a Presbyterian newspaper there if Lovejoy would agree to edit it. His editorials criticized slavery and other church denominations. [10] Lovejoy promptly embarked on his journey to Illinois, reaching Hillsboro, Montgomery County, in the fall of 1827. Elijah Parish Lovejoy was an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, newspaper editor, and abolitionist. His death deeply affected many Northerners and greatly strengthened the abolitionist (anti-slavery) cause. The church is now named LoveJoy United Presbyterian Church, after its founder. Elijah Parish Lovejoy Was Killed By a Pro-slavery Mob November 7, 1837 On November 7, 1837, Elijah Parish Lovejoy was killed by a pro-slavery mob while defending the site of his anti-slavery newspaper, The Saint Louis Observer. Six years later he became editor of the St. Louis Observer, a Presbyterian weekly in which he strongly condemned slavery and supported gradual emancipation. Twenty years after Lovejoy’s death – and before becoming president – Lincoln wrote to his friend, the Reverend James Lemen, reflecting, “Lovejoy’s tragic death for freedom in every sense marked his sad ending as the most important single event that ever happened in … [2] Lovejoy's father was a Congregational preacher and farmer, and his mother was a homemaker and a devout Christian. On the fourth, on November 7, 1837, the mob murdered Lovejoy. His interest in teaching waned, however, when local editors began accepting his poems in their newspapers. history PLEASE HELP AND FAST (use two examples) some historians say that the attacks by the abolitionist actually strengthened sectionalism in the south instead of weakening it. Lovejoy accepted and on November 22, 1833, the first issue of the St. Louis Observer was published. Elijah Parish Lovejoy Elijah Parish Lovejoy (1802-1837), a native of Albion, Maine, was murdered in Alton, Illinois by a pro-slavery mob on November 7, 1837 while defending his right to promote the abolition of slavery in the United States. However, Lovejoy admitted to his parents that "gradually these feelings all left me, and I returned to the world a more hardened sinner than ever. Frederick Douglass - Douglass wrote about his experiences as a slave to portray the cruelty of slavery to the American public. What was Reverend Lovejoy killed by? This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Elijah-P-Lovejoy, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Elijah Lovejoy, Elijah P. Lovejoy - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The jury foreman had been a member of the mob and was wounded in the attack. In May 1836, after pro-slavery forces in St. Louis destroyed his printing press for the third time, Lovejoy left the city and moved across the river to Alton, in the free state of Illinois. Only Alderman and future mayor Bryan Mullanphy attempted to stop the crime, and no policemen or city officials intervened. Dissatisfied with daily teaching, Lovejoy thought about moving to the Southern or Western United States. He ended by declaring that he would not be driven away, but would continue his work in Alton. Observing the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, the Reverend Owen Lovejoy denied that the Constitution and the laws made under its authority must in all circumstances be obeyed. Omissions? Lovejoy was away from the city at this time and the publishers declared that no further articles on slavery would appear during Lovejoy's absence and, when he returned, he would follow a more rigorous editorial policy. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, List of journalists killed in the United States, "Winthrop S. Gilman Dead: An Original Abolitionist and Successful Business Man and Banker", "Elijah Parish Lovejoy Was Killed By a Pro-slavery Mob", John Glanville Gill. Reverent Lovejoy (aka Elijah Parish Lovejoy)- He was a famous abolitionist and Presbyterian minister during the early 19th century. However, the newspaper's owners released the Observer property to the moneylender who held the mortgage and the new owners asked Lovejoy to stay on as editor. They sent a boy up with a torch to set fire to the wooden roof. Elijah P. Lovejoy, in full Elijah Parish Lovejoy, (born November 9, 1802, Albion, Maine, U.S.—died November 7, 1837, Alton, Illinois), American newspaper editor and martyred abolitionist who died in defense of his right to print antislavery material in the period leading up to the American Civil War (1861–65). Threats of mob violence, however, forced him to move his press across the Mississippi River to Alton, in the free state of Illinois. Finally, on the night of November 7, 1837, a mob attacked the building, and Lovejoy was killed in its defense. Lovejoy continued to fight for abolition, … A group of prominent St. Louisans, including many of Lovejoy's friends, wrote a letter pleading with him to cease discussion of slavery in the newspaper. He worked as an editor of an anti-Jacksonian newspaper, the St. Louis Observer, and ran a school. The issues involved in the death of the Rev. His former teachers at Waterville College advised him that he would best serve God in the West. William Lloyd Garrison used his Boston newspaper, The Liberator to spread his message. was destroyed four times. Definitions of Reverend Lovejoy, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of Reverend Lovejoy, ... For the abolitionist, see Elijah Parish Lovejoy. Frederick Douglass was a leader of the abolitionist movement who had escaped from slavery and was a great orator and wrote very important antislavery writing. Owen and his brother Joseph wrote a memoir about Elijah, which was published in 1838 by the Anti-Slavery Society in New York and distributed widely among abolitionists in the nation. The printing press sat on the riverbank, unguarded, overnight and was destroyed and thrown into the Mississippi River. [20][page needed]. Lovejoy was hit five times with slugs from a shotgun and died immediately; Weller was wounded. The Lovejoy supporters were not happy to have his enemies at the convention, but relented as the meeting was open to all parties. Brown described Lovejoy as "a very good man, and decidedly the best master that I had ever had. However, the presiding judge, Judge Lawless, refused to convict anyone and considered the crime a spontaneous mob action without any specific people to prosecute. It has been said that he became an abolitionist after he witnessed a … After an economic crisis in March 1837, Alton citizens wondered if Lovejoy's views were contributing to hard times. Lovejoy is perhaps best known for his role in the Underground Railroad. I am chiefly indebted to him, and to my employment in the printing office, for what little learning I obtained while in slavery."[12]. Elijah P. Lovejoy, in full Elijah Parish Lovejoy, (born November 9, 1802, Albion, Maine, U.S.—died November 7, 1837, Alton, Illinois), American newspaper editor and martyred abolitionist who died in defense of his right to print antislavery material in the period leading up to the American Civil War (1861–65). Reverend Lovejoy was abolitionist that published anti-slavery articles. What did Reverend Lovejoy become? [1]:97–98 "The Boston Recorder declared that these events called forth from every part of the land 'a burst of indignation which has not had its parallel in this country since the Battle of Lexington. The noted abolitionist Reverend Elijah P. Lovejoy (1802-37) is believed to have owned this press. ... we've compiled a series of multiple-choice questions about Elijah P. Lovejoy the abolitionist that will test your understanding of this historical figure. His activity in support of abolition had been prominently on display in two local forums. Lovejoy received financial support from minister Benjamin Tappan to continue his attendance at Waterville College. Reverend Lovejoy or Elijah Parish Lovejoy was a reverend who published anti-slavery articles in various newspapers. After the Reverend Elijah Lovejoy, editor of an Abolitionist newspaper in St. Louis, moved it in 1836 to Alton, Illinois, the citizens of Alton destroyed in on three occasions. They broke it up and threw the pieces into the river. He reminded the audience that he was a hardworking and God-fearing citizen who had broken no laws, and that the physical threats to him and his family were totally unjustified. For the television presenter, see Tim Lovejoy. Elijah Parish Lovejoy (November 9, 1802 – November 7, 1837) was an American Presbyterian minister, journalist, newspaper editor, and abolitionist. Reverend Elijah Lovejoy lived in Alton, Illinois. Lovejoy's father was a Congregational preacher and farmer and his mother, a devout Christian. Lovejoy and his supporter Royal Weller went outside, surprised the pro-slavery partisans, pushed over the ladder and retreated back inside the warehouse. After spending the afternoon there, they headed to the Cambridge home of Reverend Joseph C. 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